Photo by Vivint Solar on Unsplash

I always had a fascination with solar power because of the awesome potential that the Sun has to provide us with unbelievable amounts of electricity. The Sun bathes the Earth in almost 3 times as much energy as the entire Earth uses in a year. In 2019, the entire globe utilized approximately 583.90 Exajoules (EJ: 1 x 10¹² MegaJoule); however, the Sun provides us with 1,575.0–49,837 Exajoules of energy. So at a minimum it is providing us with 3 times as much energy, and at a maximum potential it is providing 85 times as much energy! One study done by…


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I have been looking for a variety of ways to begin taking action on Climate Change. Today I have taken my second step towards this goal. My first step was writing a letter to my newborn son for him to read in 30 years on where I hope the world to be. This was an experience inspired by the website deartomorrow.org. I highly recommend that you take some time out of your busy schedule to do the same.

I was searching for ways to offset my carbon footprint and my local energy provider, Duke Energy Progress, provides a “Renewable Advantage”…


Photo taken by Author — My goal is to have this type of beauty for my son Jack for his entire life

Recently, I listened to the Crowdsourcing Sustainability podcast with Ryan Hagen where they interviewed Jill Kubit who created the Dear Tomorrow website where you are encouraged to write a letter to someone in the future and make a commitment to climate change action. This is what Jill writes on the website where you can send a letter to your future significant person:

Think of a person important in your life — your child, a friend, a family member or your future self. Imagine it is 2050 and they receive a letter from you written today. …


Photo by Pisit Heng on Unsplash

If you are to remember one thing from this article, it is to remember that dictionaries store data in “key to value” pairs. This means that for every key in the dictionary there is a corresponding value. This value can be any type of data object (another dictionary, list, tuple, integer, string, boolean, etc.); however, the keys must be unique and an immutable type (string, number, or tuple with immutable elements).

I like to think of dictionaries like a key and lock system. You have the one key that can unfasten the lock which can hold any number of things…


Partial image backgound was downloaded from Devostock images then edited by author

In this post, I will be going through 1 of the 3 built-in data types in python used to store collections of data: the Tuple.

What is a Python Tuple?

A tuple is a collection of items that are ordered and immutable (cannot be changed).

A Python Tuple is identical to the list in all respects except for:

  1. A tuple uses parentheses () not brackets []
  2. Items in a tuple cannot be changed (immutable).

Photo by Emma Matthews Digital Content Production on Unsplash

In this post, I will be going through 1 of the 3 built-in data types in python used to store collections of data: the List.

What is a Python List?


Photo by shiyang xu on Unsplash

I figure since you have found yourself navigating to this page that you probably have a good amount of data that you are looking to analyze, and you may possibly be wondering the best and most efficient way to answer some of your questions about your data. The answer to your questions can be found with the use of the python package: Pandas.

How to access Pandas

Due to the popularity of Pandas it has its own conventional abbreviation, so anytime you are importing pandas into python, use the nomenclature below:

import pandas as pd

Primary Use of Pandas package is the DataFrame

The pandas API defines a pandas dataframe as:

Two-dimensional…

Billy Fetzner

I am a scientist with an obsession for analyzing data, with a passion for animals and the environment.

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